Trad Climbing Gear > Nuts

This 'Climbing Nuts' article is part of the book - Trad Climbing Basics.

VDiff learn to trad climb e-book book

How to place climbing nuts rock climbing nuts stoppers

Nuts are an essential for every trad climber. They are made of a flexible wire which is threaded through a hard 'nut' of metal. They are cheap, light and durable.

Climbing nuts exert very little outwards force on the rock, unlike cams. Most of the force is transferred in the direction it is being pulled (in most cases, down and slightly outwards from the rock).

It's for this reason that they should be placed in tapered cracks and constrictions, where the crack becomes smaller further down. When weighted (if you fall), the nut becomes wedged further into the crack.

Rock climbing nut forces

How To Place Climbing Nuts

Step 1

When you spot a suitable constriction, grab your rack of nuts and try a few that are most likely to fit. Assess the taper and curve of the crack and the quality of the rock.

How to place climbing nuts

Step 2

Once you've found the best fit, give it a gentle downwards tug to seat it in place.

This will stop the rope lifting it out when you climb past.

How to place climbing nuts in a crack

Step 3

Remove the nut from the carabiner, extend it with a quickdraw or sling and then clip it to your rope.

How to place climbing nuts trad climbing

VDiff trad climbing book

Placing Climbing Nuts - Tips


Climbing nuts are generally non-symmetrical, being wider at one side and also curved. This means they can be placed in four possible orientations.

If your nut isn’t quite perfect, try placing it in a different orientation.

How to place climbing nuts when trad climbing

Surface Contact

You should select the size and orientation of nut which has as much surface contact with the rock as possible.

More surface contact means more 'grip'. A nut with more grip is more likely to stay exactly where you placed it as you climb above.

Rock climbing nuts


Place nuts fully inside the crack, but not so far that you can't see them.

How to use rock climbing nuts

Remember that your partner must be able to reach with their nut tool to remove them.

How to use rock climbing wires


Nuts are most reliable in tapered constrictions that they fit neatly into.

Nuts in very flared constrictions could fall out due to insufficient surface contact. Nuts in parallel-sided cracks will not work.

Rock climbing nuts placed in a crack in different orientations

Diagonal Cracks

Nuts work best in vertical constrictions, but they can also be placed in diagonal cracks.

Nuts are generally less reliable in diagonal cracks because they are not pulled directly into the constriction when weighted.

Pay attention to which way the nut would be pulled in the event of a fall. If it could be pulled out, try a better placement.

How to use rock climbing nuts

Horizontal Slots

Nuts can also be placed in horizontal constrictions as shown.

How to use climbing nuts

Threading Nuts

Nuts can also be used as a thread. This works best with large nuts. Poke the wire loop through the hole, then clip a quickdraw to it.

However, holes like this usually suggest poor rock quality. Slings are softer on the rock than nuts so try using a sling as a thread in this situation, or look for something else more solid.

How to thread climbing nuts

Opposing Nuts

Nuts can oppose each other to create a multidirectional piece.

This old-school technique is rarely used nowadays because there is usually something else better and quicker to place, especially if you have some offset cams. However, it could help you out if no other gear exists.

Step 1
Place two opposing nuts so the carabiners are close together but not overlapping.

Step 2
Clip a sling into one of the carabiners and pass both strands of the sling through the other carabiner.

opposing climbing nuts

Step 3
Pass the end of the sling through the two strands and also through the carabiner as shown.

opposed climbing nuts

Step 4
Cinch the knot tight to create tension between the nuts. Then clip the sling to the rope.

opposing nuts climbing

Removing Climbing Nuts

To be removed from a crack, a nut will need to reverse the way it went in.

Often, a little wiggle will unseat the nut, enabling it to be pushed up and out.

If this doesn't work, tap it from below with your nut tool.

If that doesn't work either, hold your nut tool under the nut and hit it with a big hex.

Removing a climbing nut from a crack in rock

As a last resort, yank upwards on the attached quickdraw or sling to dislodge it.

Be careful though, this damages the cable over time.

Removing a climbing nut from a crack

Racking Climbing Nuts

Climbing nuts grouped in size order attached to a sling rack

Oval carabiners are good for racking nuts – the large bottom radius helps to stop the wires tangling together.

Nuts prefer to be organized by size and racked in groups of 4-7 per carabiner.

It's common to have 10-15 nuts split onto 2-3 carabiners for a typical climb.

Cramming all your nuts onto one carabiner makes it hard to find the one you want, and if you drop this carabiner, you'll have no nuts.

Top Tip

It's better to rack your nuts on a carabiner with a strong gate-spring.

A weak gate-spring can be pressed open easily, meaning that you will 'rain nuts' on your belayer.

Rock climber drops climbing nuts

Trad Climbing Gear > Hexes

This 'hexes' article is part of the book - Trad Climbing Basics.

VDiff learn to trad climb e-book book

Rock climbing hex how to use hexes climbing infographic

Hexes are an old type of climbing protection that are seldom seen on climber's racks since the introduction of cams. However, they do have advantages over cams in certain situations.

The main advantage of hexes is they will work in dirty, wet or icy cracks where cams are likely to slide out. They are also lighter than the equivalent sized cam. This is especially noticeable in the bigger sizes. They cost a lot less too.

They can be used 'passively' in exactly the same way as nuts; by being wedged into constrictions and tapered cracks.

However, they can also be placed in 'active mode', so that they 'cam' into the crack. When a hex is placed as shown, and pulled downwards, it tries to rotate (green arrows). This rotation applies increasing pressure outwards onto the side walls of the crack (white arrows), which locks it in position.

Rock climbing hex how to use hexes climbing

Placing Hexes - Passive Mode

Rock climbing hex placed in crack how to use hexes for rock climbing

Look for constrictions and treat them just like a large nut. They can be placed sideways or straight in. As with nuts, give the hex a gentle tug to seat it in position, then extend it with a quickdraw.

VDiff trad climbing book

Placing Hexes - Active Mode

When using a hex in active mode, it's still good to place it in a constriction; they are fairly unreliable in perfectly parallel-sided cracks. (Cams are much better in parallel cracks).

However, because of the hexes' camming action, the constriction doesn't need to be as sharp as it would be for a nut placement.

Rock climbing hex nut in crack how to use hexes trad climbing

What you’re looking for is a crack that you can just fit the hex into. Place the hex so that it has opposite sides making contact with either side of the crack, with the sling coming out diagonally from the bottom.

The important factor to take into consideration is what orientation to use. Try placing it with different sides touching the crack. Place it in the way that fits the tightest, and which 'cams' into position the most when the sling is weighted.

how to use hexes trad climbing

Placing Hexes - Horizontal Cracks

Rock climbing hex placed in horizontal crack how to use hexes for rock climbing

Hexes can be used in horizontal cracks in the same way as vertical cracks. It's often better to have the sling coming out of the top, so it doesn't rub over the edge of the crack.

Removing Hexes

A hex can be removed the same way as a nut in most cases. However, if a hex has rotated into place tightly, you'll have to reverse the way it rotated in order to retrieve it.

Don't be afraid to hit them hard with your nut tool; they're very durable.

Removing hexes for rock climbing


Most of the time, you'll only be carrying one or two hexes. In which case, you can either put them on the same carabiner with your big nuts (for small hexes), or clip them further back on your harness on their own separate carabiner (for bigger sizes).

If you must carry a full rack, they can be racked in groups of 2-4 per carabiner.

Rock climbing hexes racked with nuts climbing

Top Tip
If your big hexes are jangling around, slide the hex to the middle of its sling and clip both ends together. This way, the metal part only hangs down half the distance.

Rock climbing hex racked on sling rock climbing

Trad Climbing Gear > Ball Nuts

This 'ball nuts' article is part of the book - Trad Climbing Basics.

VDiff learn to trad climb e-book book

Ball nuts are a seldom used type of climbing gear which offer protection in thin cracks, filling the void where even the smallest cams are too big to fit.

They are comprised of two halves: one half is a paddle and the other is a flat ball which tracks up and down a central groove on the paddle when the trigger is pulled or released.

When weighted, the paddle is pulled down while the ball remains stuck in position. As the paddle moves down, it slides over the ball, therefore expanding the whole unit and causing it to lock into the crack.

how to use ball nuts climbing

Ball Nuts: How They Work

The key to using ball nuts is understanding the physics which cause them to lock into the crack:
- Ball travel
- Topology
- Surface texture
- Rock hardness.

Each of these are described below.

Ball Travel

When you pull the trigger, the ball travels along the paddle’s central groove. On most units, the ball can travel beyond the paddle at either end.

how to use ball nuts climbing

During a fall, the ball stays still and the paddle is pulled down a tiny amount. Essentially, the ball ‘travels’ relative to the paddle. This cinches the whole unit tight into the crack.

how to use ball nuts climbing

There will be some amount of ball travel in every fall, but the exact amount depends on the rock type and the placement (see below). The key to using ball nuts is anticipating and accommodating for the distance the ball will travel.

In a typical placement, the ball nut should be placed so the ball starts about 25% of the way up the paddle. When it cinches up in a fall, the ball moves to around 50-70% up the paddle.

how to use ball nuts climbing

If the ball starts at the very bottom of the paddle (so the ball nut is at its narrowest setting), it may be difficult to remove.

If the ball starts close to the top of the paddle, there is a good chance that the ball will ride over the top end of the paddle, therefore causing the piece to fail.


Ball nuts are best placed in a slight constriction as opposed to an absolutely parallel sided crack. Gear which is better suited to parallel sided cracks are:
- Micro cams (if they will fit)
- Pitons (if you are aiding with a hammer)
- Cam hooks (if you are aiding without a hammer)

In very tapering constrictions, a micro nut will be a better choice. This is because ball nuts are more sensitive to rotating upward/outward with movements in your rope as you climb above.

how to use ball nuts climbing

In addition to getting the ball in an appropriate spot on the paddle, you’ll need to find the best spot for the ball to ‘stick’ in the crack.

Remember that the paddle moves under load, not the ball. If the ball moves too, the whole piece will probably pull out. Look for more texture, a tiny protrusion or constriction for the ball to rest on.

how to use ball nuts climbing

Surface Texture
In completely slick or icy rock, the ball will struggle to grip the side of the crack as the paddle is pulled down. This means the ball nut will slip right out. A slightly rougher surface is much better.

Be aware of tiny crystals or grains of rock which may crunch into dust under the force of a fall. This could cause the unit to expand beyond its limit and fail.

Rock Hardness
Harder rock (such as granite) is much better suited for ball nuts. When weighted in very soft, loose or expanding rock, the ball is likely to travel the full length of the paddle and slip off the end. This is especially true in the smaller sizes.

VDiff trad climbing book

Ball Nuts: The Placement

Step 1
When you find a suitable placement, grab your rack of ball nuts and try a few that are most likely to fit. Assess the texture and taper of the crack and the quality of the rock.

Step 2
Retract the trigger so the ball slides down to the bottom of the paddle slot. Place it in the crack and release the trigger. Closely inspect the placement to take advantage of every subtle feature.

Step 3
Tug downwards (in the direction of loading) on the ball nut to seat it into position. The ball should now be around 25% of the way up the paddle.

Make a final assessment to check there is no possibility of it cinching up so much that the ball rides over the end of the paddle.

how to use ball nuts climbing

Step 4
Extend the ball nut with a quickdraw or sling.

Think carefully about where your rope will pull on the piece as you climb above. Ball nuts should stay exactly where you placed them. Rotation can make them blow.

how to use ball nuts climbing

Ball Nuts: Removal

To remove a ball nut, you have to reverse the cinching action. For many placements, this can be done by retracting the trigger, just the same as a cam.

If this doesn’t work, the strategy is to get the paddle to slide into the crack further while the ball stays where it is. You can assist this by hooking a nut tool over the ball (if there’s space for it) while you pull the trigger and push the whole unit in.

The ball is made of a softer metal than the paddle. Under high forces (such as in a fall), the ball deforms slightly. This helps it to stay in position and stick in the crack. To remove stubborn ball nuts like this, you can free up the ball by rotating or tapping the paddle in with your nut tool.

Ball Nuts: Racking

Ball nuts can be racked in the same way as nuts: Just put them in small groups on a carabiner.

If you are only carrying one or two, they can be added to your small nut rack.

how to use ball nuts climbing

Ball Nuts: Summary

Armed with a set of ball nuts, you can protect or aid tiny cracks that you’d otherwise have to leave unprotected or hammer in a piton.

If you often climb in venues that feature very small cracks or pin scars, you will benefit by adding a set of ball nuts and the skills to place them to your arsenal.

Trad Climbing Gear > Big Bros

This 'big bros' article is part of the book - Trad Climbing Basics.

VDiff learn to trad climb e-book book

Big Bros are expandable tubes which protect wide cracks. They are lighter and more compact than large cams but are harder to place, cannot be shuffled up the crack and do not work as well in flares.

Once expanded into the crack, one side of the big bro will be higher up than the other. When the higher side is weighted (e.g: if the climber falls), the unit becomes wedged into position.

Rock climbing big bro how to use big bros climbing

Placing Big Bros

Step 1
Find a flat spot in a parallel sided crack. Place the inner tube against the wall.

how to use big bros climbing

Step 2
Press the trigger button and let the tube expand slowly to fill the crack (it can damage the big bro if you push the button and let the tube slam into the rock).

The inner tube should contact the rock at a lower point than the outer tube. Wiggle the tube around a little to get the best fit.

Rock climbing big bro

Step 3
Spin the locking collar to the end of its range and tighten it. This sets the big bro in position.

To get the best fit, wiggle the tube slightly as you fasten it.

Rock climbing big bro how to use

Removing Big Bros

Spin the collar to the end of the tube and compress the big bro until the trigger pops back into to place.

how to use big bros

VDiff trad climbing book

Racking Big Bros

Big bros should be compressed and racked on their own separate carabiner.

big bros climbing